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MIM-23 Hawk (United States)
The Hawk is a air-defence system which is developed for short and medium distances by the American company Raytheon. It brings a high level of protection against, fighter jets, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles at low or medium altitude till a maximum of 9014m height. The advanced version is the Phase III configuration of the hawk. US Marines in overseas countries have hawks which have modified that they can also intercept short-distance ballistic missiles.
The hawk installation uses sensors like the high power continuous wave radar (HIPIR), a continuous wave acquisition radar (CWAR)
Pulse Acquisition Radar (PAR) and passive optical scan.
One firebattery contains normal 2 same fire units, each with a command post with a operator, a full time carrier recuiringradar for protecting the air, a heavy power supply, a MK XII IFF interrogator set and the launchers with each 3 missiles. A total of 2 officers and 49 petty-officers. The radar has a range of 360 degrees. For target detection, a continuous wave radar and pulse acquisition radars are used and for target tracking a high power illuminating continuous wave radar and passive optical.
Using the hawk system can be done in 3 parts, firing, fire control and acquisition. Target detection will be send from the wave radars to a fire control section but the data target information can also be received via a data link from other sensors. With the tracking radar the fire control section will lock onto the target. Than a missile can be launched, manual or automatic. The period between 2 missiles is 3 seconds. Both radar and the radars are protected by electronic countermeasures.
The hawk is in service by the United States Marines Corps and many other NATO countries like the Netherlands, Kuwait and Israel. Dutch forces and US forces have never shut down a target in combat. Other countries like Kuwait and Israel have shot a lot of aircrafts with the Hawk.
The Royal Netherlands Air Force had the ability of the hawk air-defence missile system. They were stationed on De Peel Air Force Base in The Netherlands. In 2004/2005 the hawk systems have been sold to Romania.
United States Marine Corps
The hawk is the primary air-defence missile system of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) since 1960.
|Last updated: September 5, 2010|